Feeding cattle during the winter season heavily depends on forage availability and this on moisture to keep up with its growth. Many beef producers may need a Plan B when it comes to winter forages due to dry conditions, according to Dr. Jason Banta, Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service beef cattle specialist in Overton.
Supplemental feeding is underway in parts of the state due to dry conditions. Continued dry conditions could hinder winter annual growth and increase the need for nutritional supplements for cattle herds. Banta said supplemental feeding started earlier than usual for many producers around the state because of dry fall conditions. The Texas state climatologist’s long-term winter forecast called for warmer, drier conditions. This means producers will have to feed hay much earlier compared to recent years. “If producers get rain, they’ll want to utilize those winter annuals as best as possible,” he continued. “If they don’t get rain, producers need to be calculating how much hay they have on hand and whether they might need to start looking for sources to purchase additional hay.”
If winter pasture growth is abundant, then pairs can be grazed full time. However, dry cows in the last third of gestation should be limit-grazed for about two hours per day because full-time grazing can result in increased calf birth weights. If winter pasture is short, limit grazing will be the best strategy for both spring and fall-calving cows. Banta said now is the time for producers to prepare for worst-case scenarios and maintain or improve herd body condition scores. Hay should be tested for protein and total digestible nutrients, or TDN, so producers can calculate their herd’s nutritional needs and decide which supplemental sources are most appropriate. For example, to maintain its body condition, a lactating cow would require hay that is about 11.5 percent protein and 62-63 percent TDN. A dry cow in late gestation would need about 8 percent protein and 55 percent TDN. Producers should select supplements based on the cost per unit of nutrient needed, Banta said. Cubes are a common supplement used by many producers. If both energy and protein supplementation are needed, a 20 percent protein cube would likely be most cost effective, he said. However, if only a protein supplement is needed, then a 40 percent protein cube is more cost effective.
Producers should start slow and build up with supplements, such as concentrates and grains, because cows are designed to consume grasses. It’s also important to feed them supplements consistently each day to avoid digestive problems such as acidosis, which can lead to founder, foot abscesses, damage to the rumen lining or death. It is recommended to starting with no more than 2 pounds of supplement per cow per day and slowly building up from there. Generally speaking, if cows are in good condition then 1-1.5 pounds of a 40 percent protein cube or something similar is a good place to start for dry cows; 2-3 pounds per day would likely be needed for wet cows, Banta said. If cows also need energy, then something like a 20 percent protein cube could be a good option. With average quality hay, a common feeding rate for dry cows would be about 2-3 pounds per day per cow or 4-6 pounds for wet cows. Two – and three-year-old cows should have a body condition score of 6 or better at calving. Cows 4-years-old and older should be in a body condition score of 5 or greater at calving. Cows with a body condition score of 5 don’t look fat or thin. Ribs are not noticeable and areas on each side of the tailhead are fairly well filled in but fat pones have not developed, according to the AgriLife Extension overviews. A body condition score of 6 represents cows that are in good shape for calving. Ribs are covered completely with fat. Fat deposits are beginning to increase in the brisket and on each side of the tailhead.
For more information on this or any other agricultural topic please contact the Hopkins County Extension Office at 903-885-3443 or email me at firstname.lastname@example.org